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  1. Claims of existence between biopolitics and thanatopolitics

    Eirini Avramopoulou asks the following questions in her essay 'Claims of Existence between Biopolitics and Thanatopolitics': How is the desire for existence implicated in the experience of identity as wound? Under which conditions does the demand for... mehr

     

    Eirini Avramopoulou asks the following questions in her essay 'Claims of Existence between Biopolitics and Thanatopolitics': How is the desire for existence implicated in the experience of identity as wound? Under which conditions does the demand for desire appear to confront the repetition of trauma? Or else, what echoes in the last breath of someone dying? In Istanbul, a city built upon neoliberal structures of governance and cosmopolitan aesthetics, and defined by severe policing and local histories of ethnic and gender violence, these questions reflect upon a particular historical and political period through a personal story. The essay focuses on a transgender activist named Ali, his fight against transphobia, his illness and death, while reflecting on the 2013 public uprising in Istanbul following attempts by the Turkish government to demolish Gezi park. By exploring the notion of spectral survival as a political praxis, it argues that this notion, rather than acceding to claims over a fuller subjectivity, mobilizes an aporia of de-subjectivation. De-constituting the 'I' here attests to an attempt neither to reconfigure its parts nor to merely perceive life as dismantled, but rather to speak of a loss that no familiar language can yet describe. The spectrality of this 'I' troubles and repoliticizes, then, the very notion of haunting, as it lays claims to its own differing and deferral from the constitution of a proper name, or of a 'self'-acclaimed existence, especially when the fight for existence here is also a performative assertion of loss and death connected to processes of resisting sexist, neoliberal, heteronormative, and phallogocentric representations of possession and belonging.

     

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    Quelle: GiNDok
    Sprache: Englisch
    Medientyp: Teil eines Buches (Kapitel)
    Format: Online
    ISBN: 978-3-85132-854-7
    DDC Klassifikation: Philosophie und Psychologie (100); Literatur und Rhetorik (800)
    Sammlung: ICI Berlin
    Schlagworte: Gezi-Park (Istanbul); Protestbewegung; Geschichte 2013; Transgender; Transsexueller; LGBT; Aktivismus; Tod; Trauma
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    Creative Commons - Namensnennung-Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen

  2. Warburg's ghost : on literary atlases and the 'anatopic' shift of a cartographic object

    Filippo Trentin's essay 'Warburg's Ghost: On Literary Atlases and the "Anatopic" Shift of a Cartographic Object' analyses the atlas as a method of assemblage in literary theory. It takes issue with the use of cartography advocated by proponents of a... mehr

     

    Filippo Trentin's essay 'Warburg's Ghost: On Literary Atlases and the "Anatopic" Shift of a Cartographic Object' analyses the atlas as a method of assemblage in literary theory. It takes issue with the use of cartography advocated by proponents of a 'spatial turn' within literary studies, including Malcolm Bradbury's "Atlas of Literature", Franco Moretti's "Atlas of European Literature", and Sergio Luzzatto and Gabriele Pedullà's "Atlante della letteratura italiana". While these atlases claim to dismantle the normative canon of historicism and to offer a different way of gathering knowledge, Trentin argues that they often risk reproducing analogous positivistic, hierarchical, and colonizing assumptions. Showing a totalizing attitude embedded in modern atlases and in the 'cartographic reason' emerging from the sixteenth century onwards, the essay proposes a speculative and heuristic use of the term 'anatopy' that aims to capture the disorienting potentialities that are intrinsic to non-cartographic explorations of space. In particular, it interprets Aby Warburg's "Bilderatlas Mnemosyne" as an 'anatopic' object that keeps troubling any purely cartographic use of the atlas. In Trentin's reading, by theorizing an anti-foundational (and anti-identitarian) method of knowledge organization based on the morphological affect between disparate images and objects, Warburg's project leads to the profanation of the atlas as a topographical machine and, with its recurrences, intervals, and voids, destitutes its traditional apparatus of power. This disparate and anti-holistic aesthetic disposition challenges the solid foundations of the constructions of historicism and cartographic reason. It breaks up the technical explanation of cause and effect and substitutes it with a 'danced causality', which Trentin relates to Leo Bersani's idea of 'aesthetic subject' and the possibility of moving beyond an immobile and filial principle of identity formation towards a virtual and impersonal one that is located beyond the 'ego', as well as beyond the rigid borders of cartographic reason and the linearity of positivistic historicism.

     

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    Quelle: GiNDok
    Sprache: Englisch
    Medientyp: Teil eines Buches (Kapitel)
    Format: Online
    ISBN: 978-3-85132-854-7
    DDC Klassifikation: Philosophie und Psychologie (100); Literatur und Rhetorik (800)
    Sammlung: ICI Berlin
    Schlagworte: Warburg, Aby Moritz; Mnemosyne; Atlas; Bildband; Assemblage; Kartografie; Wissensrepräsentation; Spatial turn; Historizismus; Totalität; Archiv
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    Creative Commons - Namensnennung-Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen

  3. Hegel and the ad-venture of the totality

    A different take on knowledge, history, and totalization is presented in Jamila Mascat's essay 'Hegel and the Ad-venture of the Totality', which aims at exploring the controversial notion of the Hegelian totality. Countering Louis Althusser's... mehr

     

    A different take on knowledge, history, and totalization is presented in Jamila Mascat's essay 'Hegel and the Ad-venture of the Totality', which aims at exploring the controversial notion of the Hegelian totality. Countering Louis Althusser's critique of Hegel's 'expressive totality', where every part is thought to expresses the whole, it proposes to consider such a speculative figure as a temporalizing instance situated at the entanglement of Knowing and History. Firstly, it illustrates the paradoxical inclination of Hegel's totality to being both complete and a never-ending task. Secondly, it analyses the accomplishment of totality at the peak of the Science of Logic, focusing on the temporal circularity of the Concept ('Begriff'). Thirdly, drawing on the readings of Alexandre Koyré, Alexandre Kojève, and Jean Hyppolite, the essay illustrates the peculiar relation between becoming and eternity that is located at the heart of Hegel's conception of time. Finally, it approaches the last section of the "Phenomenology of Spirit" devoted to Absolute Knowing in order to highlight the twofold movement of seizure ('Begreifen') and release ('Entlassen') that characterizes the activity of the Spirit and that is constitutive of the contingent ad-venture of the totality as a philosophical achievement. In other words, it is by embracing contingency as its limit that Absolute Knowing reaffirms the status of its absoluteness precisely because of its capacity to sacrifice itself and let it go. Critically engaging with Catherine Malabou's reading of plasticity in Hegel, Mascat highlights that Absolute Knowing is a process of totalization that entails cuts and interruptions. The essay shows that the Hegelian totality may be interpreted and actualized as a theoretical construct densely charged with temporal and historical implications: on the one hand, totality expresses a timely standpoint for thought - the standpoint of Hegel's age, which is, as claimed by the philosopher at the end of his "Lectures on the History of Philosophy", 'for the time being completed', as well as the standpoint of the present time to be speculatively accomplished; on the other hand, Hegel's idea of a speculative totalization sets for the philosophies yet to come the never-ending task of constituting and re-constituting wholes.

     

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    Quelle: GiNDok
    Sprache: Englisch
    Medientyp: Teil eines Buches (Kapitel)
    Format: Online
    ISBN: 978-3-85132-854-7
    DDC Klassifikation: Philosophie und Psychologie (100); Literatur und Rhetorik (800)
    Sammlung: ICI Berlin
    Schlagworte: Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich; Totalität; Geschichte; Wissen; Plastizität; Zeit; Kontingenz
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    Creative Commons - Namensnennung-Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen

  4. The innate plasticity of bodies and minds : integrating models of genetic determination and environmental formation

    A paradigm for thinking about wholes, their constitution and re-production, has long been provided by living organisms. While the emphasis is often on the relation between parts and wholes - between the functionally differentiated organs and the... mehr

     

    A paradigm for thinking about wholes, their constitution and re-production, has long been provided by living organisms. While the emphasis is often on the relation between parts and wholes - between the functionally differentiated organs and the organism, or, on a lower level, between cells and organs - Robert Meunier and Valentine Reynaud's essay 'The Innate Plasticity of Bodies and Minds: Integrating Models of Genetic Determination and Environmental Formation' poses the question of the whole in biology with respect to the organism and its environment. A developmental system involves not only what we conventionally discern as the organism, that is, initially, the fertilized egg and the cellular mass arising from it by cell division, but also the physical and biological surrounding of the developing embryo. In the sense that not every aspect of the environment plays a role, the organism as part of the system constitutes this whole by determining what has an effect on the process and what does not. On the other hand, by not only enabling development or providing material but instead shaping the process in specific ways, the whole of organism-environment interactions constitutes its part, i.e., the developing organism. If there are therefore different, potentially incommensurable constitutions of the whole developmental system, there are also different ways of identifying the relevant units of selection in evolution, such as the living organism as a whole or the genes as the units of replication. In their essay, Meunier and Reynaud argue for a view on development and evolution that integrates notions of environmental influence and genetic determination. The notion of plasticity that has recently gained currency in the life sciences seems to oppose genetic determination and innateness by underlining the importance of environmental influence. However, while morphological and cognitive development is indeed plastic and sensitive to the environment, the essay emphasizes that the mechanisms and elements enabling a system to respond to influences must be available for development to happen in the first place. These resources for development are not homogeneous 'stuff' that becomes formed by the environment through the course of development. Instead, they are highly structured and specific and thus enable specific responses to contextual conditions. Under varying conditions they will of course appear in different combinations and produce different outcomes. Thus, they enable plasticity. And yet, as they are specific mechanisms and elements, which mainly gain their specificity from the structure of the genetic material on which the environment can act, it appears appropriate to refer to them as innate.

     

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    Quelle: GiNDok
    Sprache: Englisch
    Medientyp: Teil eines Buches (Kapitel)
    Format: Online
    ISBN: 978-3-85132-854-7
    DDC Klassifikation: Philosophie und Psychologie (100); Literatur und Rhetorik (800)
    Sammlung: ICI Berlin
    Schlagworte: Organismus; Umweltfaktor; Entwicklungsbiologie; Evolutionsbiologie; Ganzheit; Epigenetik; Plastizität <Physiologie>; Phänotyp
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    Creative Commons - Namensnennung-Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen

  5. Ende
    Erschienen: 23.10.2020

    Das Ende ist einer der Orte, an denen sich bei Blumenberg verschiedenen Argumente und Diskurse auf höchst spannungsreiche Weise verbinden und an denen sich daher zeigen lässt, dass sein Denken nicht in der einen oder anderen These aufgeht, sondern... mehr

     

    Das Ende ist einer der Orte, an denen sich bei Blumenberg verschiedenen Argumente und Diskurse auf höchst spannungsreiche Weise verbinden und an denen sich daher zeigen lässt, dass sein Denken nicht in der einen oder anderen These aufgeht, sondern gerade auf die Verbindung abzielt. Wenn er etwa einmal seinen eigenen Ansatz als "Phänomenologie der Geschichte" charakterisiert, so zeigt die Frage nach dem - zugleich denknotwendigen und unzugänglichen - Ende der Geschichte, wie wenig selbstverständlich jene Zusammensetzung von Phänomenologie einerseits, Geschichte andererseits ist. Sie impliziert nicht nur, auch nach dem Ende der Geschichtsphilosophie über das Ganze der Geschichte nachzudenken, sondern emphatisiert auch die Erinnerung als die zentrale Fähigkeit, mit der eigenen Endlichkeit umzugehen.

     

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    Quelle: GiNDok
    Sprache: Deutsch
    Medientyp: Teil eines Buches (Kapitel)
    Format: Online
    ISBN: 978-3-518-29703-2
    DDC Klassifikation: Philosophie und Psychologie (100); Literatur und Rhetorik (800)
    Schlagworte: Blumenberg, Hans; Ende; Zeitlichkeit; Eschatologie
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